Histories & Culture
Astronomical Events from a Persian Astrological Manuscript


* Institute for the History of Arabic Science, University of Aleppo, Aleppo, Syria.

1. Introduction

This study is based upon a book with the Arabic title Tanbihat al-munajjimin (Admonitions for Astrologers), written by a certain Muzaffar b. Muhammad Qasim Junabadi (Gunabadi?) and dedicated to the famous Safavid ruler of Iran, Shah °Abbas the Great (reigned 1587-1629).

The book contains long passages describing the portents associated with the appearance of "tailed stars", presumably comets and meteors for the most part, together with certain meteorological phenomena. There follows a much longer portion listing actual such events. Our Section 2 below presents the fanciful nomenclature associated with the subject, and Section 3 translates those notices which seem to be sufficiently precise to offer some hope of correlation with actual com¬ets or stellar novae (cf. Goldst. Here and in the sequel italicized ab¬breviations are references to the bibliography at the end of the paper).

Section 4 is a list of fifty-nine names, of persons or of books cited in the Tanbihat and of possible significance to the history of science (or pseudo-science). The list is variegated indeed. In point of time the names extend from the third century B. C. to the seventeenth A. D. There are Egyptians, Greeks, Indians, Arabs, and Iranians. Many are very well known, included for the sake of completeness; others have never before been encountered by us. One of the latter, Taj al-Din Akram Nakhjawani, would seem to be an important source for the history of astrology.

Many readings of names are uncertain. The scribe was careless about distinctions between one dot and two dots, and vowel signs are lacking. Persian has no definite article; frequently the Arabic al- has been suppressed, replaced in reading by an idafa, -i, at the end of the preceding word.

In order to give the reader a reasonably complete notion of the contents of the Tanbihat, the concluding Section 6 is a table of con¬tents of the document.

Although Storey (vol. 2, p. 88) lists ten extant copies of the Tan¬bahdt, only one was used for this work. It, together with many other delicacies, was pointed out by Professor David A. King in the course of our appointment at the American Research Center in Egypt, made possible by funds from the Smithsonian Institution, Washington, D.C. The manuscript belongs to the Egyptian National Library (Dar al-Kutub). It is MS MMF2 in the catalog of the scientific holdings of the Dar prepared by King.

It is a pleasure to express gratitude to the individual and to the several institutions named above.

2. Nomenclature

The subsection on the kinds of tailed stars commences (f. 197v) with a list:

Nayzak* (modern Arabic for a meteor, originally a short spear)
Shihab (a flower, firebrand, meteor).
Amud (pillar, column, post).
Buq (horn).
Jabiyah (a pool, or well).
Dhu Dhawdba* (having a lock, or mane).
Dhu Dhanab (having a tail, comet).

Here and in the sequel names having an asterisk are listed in the previous study, Comets. See also Hartner's Kaid.

There follows a long passage in which these objects are described and compared, many authorities being cited. For instance, it is stated that if the appendage of a jabiyah extends upward it is called a gisu (ringlet, forelock) whereas if it is downwards it is called dum (tail). Each of the seven tailed stars is associated with one of the seven planets (including sun and moon) of ancient astronomy.

Next (f. 198r) comes a second list, this one with fourteen names:

Dhu al-Jammat (having hair flowing over the shoulders).
Qasa'i* (dwarfed ?).
Misbdh (lantern, goblet).
Warda (rosy).
Birjisi (like Jupiter).
Madhhabi (?).
Faris (cavalier).
Harbah (portent of war?).
Taifur* (bird, or winged insect).
Lihyani* (long bearded).
Hayyah (snake).
Saffud (skewer, spit).
Al-ahmar ma'il ila al-sawad (the red one verging on blackness).

Again a discussion follows descriptive of the various objects. Thus the locks of Dhu al-jammat are said to be curly and twisted like the hair of the people of Daylam (the Caspian providence of Iran). Cer¬tain colors are associated with the several stars, and they are divided into seven pairs, each pair associated with a planet.

The Subsection ends (f. 206v) with a third list, of seven names, almost identical with the one given on p. 48 of the Comets:

Ghatat* (braying, snoring, gurgling).
Gharam* (read 'azim in the Comets).
Sar-i mush* (mouse head, Persian; there is a closely related Middle Persian comet name, cf. Kaid, p. 9).
Kilab* (dogs).
Dhu dhawaba (see above).
Tayyani (jasmine-like).

3. The Events

Except for parenthetical material these paragraphs are, by and large, reasonably literal translations from the text. The reader desiring in¬formation about a book or an individual may consult the list in Section 4 below.

f. 207v
During the month of Ramadan, 237 H. (26 Feb.-26 Mar, 852 A.D.) a comet appeared in the west, its tail reaching about to midheaven, the sun then being in the sign of Aries, in the lunar mansion Butayn (8 Arietis, Allen, p. 83). The comet was in conjunction with the sun, the head (sar) of its tail being in the lunar mansion Han`a (? Geminorum, Allen, p. 234).

f. 208v
In the month of Ramadan, 244 H. (11 Dec. 858-9 Jan. 859) a comet appeared in the sign of Sagittarius, in the lunar mansion Shaula (?Scorpii). It continued until it arrived at (the lunar mansion) Butn al-Hut (a group of stars from ? Piscium to ? Andromedae).

f. 209v
In the book (about ?) Tukaristan (= Tukharistan?, region in Afghanistan south of Balkh) it is remarked that in the time of the °Abbasid (Caliph) al-Muttaqi (reigned 940-944; text has al-Muktafi, who reigned 902-908) in the months of 330 H. (26 Sept. 941-14 Sept. 942) a comet appeared, the tail of which stretched from the east to the west. It lasted eighteen days. As a result of this sign the price of a jarab (= 333 kg.?) of wheat rose to 320 mithqals (= 1.5 kg.?) of gold, and the people resorted to cannibalism.

f. 209v.
Ali b. Ridwan the Egyptian states that in the province of Fustat (near Cairo) a mighty meteor (sic, nayzak) appeared in the middle of the sign of Scorpio. Its magnitude, judged by eye, was two and a half time~ the (apparent) body of Venus, very brilliant, of a sort that it illuminated the horizon. Its ray(s) were to the amount of a quarter of those of the moon, appearing on the ground. At its first appearance the sun was in opposition, in the sign of Taurus, and it remained until the arrival of the sun at the sign of Virgo, whereupon it suddenly came to nothing (batil shud) and disappeared.

(This is clearly an incomplete version of the reported supernova of 1006 described in Goldst. The author of the Tanbahdt has transmittec accurately much of the information originally provided by `Ali omitting the crucial matter of the date.)

f. 210r
In the "Book of Tasyirs" the sage Abu al-Qasim Balkhi alleges (irad nimudah) that in the nativity horoscope of Sultan Mahmud of Ghazna, in the sixty-fourth year the tasyir (prorogator, aphesis, directio ) of the haylaj (significator) had arrived at the Pleiades, in quartile aspect with Mars, and the tasyir of the tenth (astrological house) at Aldebaran. In this situation a mighty star swooped down (munqadd shud), two thirds of the night having passed. Its fire seized the heavens in such manner that the eye recoiled from its brilliance, and mighty sparks were thrown off from it. It (broke) into about a thousand pieces, each one as big as a house, and headed east in the direction of Khurasan (in northeastern Iran). From it an awful noise issued, like thunderbolts or the levelling of mountains. These noises lasted for half an hour and then disappeared.

The sage, in the presence of a group, predicted, on the authority of Ptolemy, the fall of a mighty one in the East, Sultan Mahmud. Indeed, after a short interval the news of the potentate's death was received.

(The passage gives no explicit date, and inferences drawn from it seem to be inconsistent. Sultan Mahmud died in 1030 (see, e.g. the Encyclopedia of Islam, either edition). This would seem to date the event. But he was born in 970, hence was sixty years old when he died, and our passage implies that he had reached the age of sixty-four before the event transpired.)

f. 210r
The scribe of (Ibn) Tulun, Ahmad b. Yusuf in the commentary to the Centiloquium said that once a comet (dhu dhawaba) appeared in Egypt which lasted about a year.

(The passage gives no date, but Ibn Tulun's regnal years were 868-883.) .

f. 210r
Taj al-Din Akram Nakhjawani said that in the year 662 (Nov. 1263-Oct. 1264), in Khuzistan (the Gulf region of Iran), when he was a police inspector of the markets in the province of Shushtar, a dhu al-jummah became visible and remained for a time. (Cf. the notice for the same year from Wishah below.)

f. 210v
The same Taj al-Din reported that in 669 H (Aug. 1270-Aug. 1271), this time in ATakhjawan (in the Caucasus), a comet (dhu dhawaba) appeared in the west, motionless.

f. 210v
`Alishah Bukhari in the book Ashjar wa athmar says that on 7 and 8 Ramadan, 662 H. (2 and 3 July 1264) a comet (dhu dhawdba) was found in the first part of the sign of Leo. The size of its head was that of a human head. It proceeded in the direction of Tibet and the eastern countries, Turkistan, Farghana, Kashgar, Mawara'al-Nahr, and Khurasan. Each night it became smaller, until after eighty nights and days it disappeared in the south.

f. 211r
`Abd al-Razzaq b. Ishaq Samarqandi, in the history Matla' al-sa'dayn alleges that at the time (c. 1392) the Amir Timur (Tamerlane) set out to campaign against the Qaysar-i Rum (the Ottoman sultan) Ildirim Bayazid, during that time a comet (dhu dhawaba) appeared.

f. 211v
The author of our text, the Tanbihat, writes that in 978 H. (June 1570-May 1571), because Mars and Mercury were combust in the tenth astrological house, the ascendant of the year in the sign of Aries, his father predicted the appearance of a comet. In that very year a comet appeared in the west.

f. 211v
The author of the Tanbihat was was personally involved with a second such event: "In the year 985 H. Mars was in the house of delusion (wahm) the ascendant the season of autumn (?fasl-i khazan) in conjunction with Mercury in the sign of Virgo. This menial servant (the writer), although at that time I was (only) fifteen years old, (I) informed the inhabitants of Khurasan that a comet would appear. In the latter part of Sha'ban (c. 2-12 Nov. 1577) in the (above-)mentioned year a comet did appear, in the west, of such a kind that the people were frightened and terrified. It continued for about fifty nights and days".

f. 212v
The author reports another comet sighting: "In the year 1027 H. it befell that Mars, the sun, and Mercury, in the tenth astrological house of the ascendant in opposition (? istiqbal) preceding the year, in the sign of Pisces, the moon being in opposition to them. Because of these indications this menial servant, in the judgments for the almanacs, asserted that the appearance of one of the comets was possible, and at an opportune time presented the information to the king, the shadow of God. On the morning of Monday, 8 Dhu al-Hijja (26 Nov. 1618) of the (above-) mentioned year, a comet (Au dhawaba) appeared in the east in the middle of the sign of Scorpio and lasted for about forty days".

Curiously enough, in an earlier part of the book, in the section on the indications of fixed stars (f. 295v), the author reports that in the beginning of Dhu al-Hijja 1027 H. (c. 21 Nov. 1618), while the royal court was at Qazwin (northwest of Tehran), a harbah appeared in the east, in the sign of Libra. On the basis of this he made predictions to the king, which duly came to pass.

The two dates are practically the same, and the zodiacal signs are adjoining, but different names are used for the category of tailed star observed. We have no explanation.

4. Sources of the Tanbihat

In the list below the part of an individual's name deemed to be his most common appellation is given first, and the whole alphabetized accordingly. In so doing, al-, abu, ibn, and k. (for kitab, book) have been ignored. Parts of names which do not appear in the text have been enclosed in parentheses. When a number appears immediately behind a name, it is that given by the author of the Tanbihat in his own list of sources on f. 216r. When an individual is referred to more than twice in the text, we do not give folio references, but the total number of such occurrences. The latter may be in error, since the process of examining the manuscript was one of scanning rather than reading.

`Abd al-Razzaq b. Ishaq-i Samarqandi (Kamal al-Din b. Jalal al-Din), f. 211 r, was born and died in Herat (816/1413-887/1482). His history of the Timurid dynasty Matla` al-sa`dayn ... (The Rising of the Beneficent (Planets) ... ) is extant in many manuscript copies, has in part been published, and has been translated into French (Storey, vol. 1, p. 293).

Ahmad b. Yusuf (b. Ibrahim b. al-Daya, Abu Ja`far), f. 210r, is best known as a biographer of Ahmad b. Tulun, the founder of the Tulunid dynasty of Egypt. He also wrote a commentary on the Centiloquium (see below), of which many copies exist, and which went into Greek and Latin. (Ullmn., p. 327).

K. `Ajd'ib al-buldan, see Birjandi.

'Alishah (b. Muhammad b. Qasim al-Khwarizmi al-)Bukhari, No. 32, ff. 210v, 216r (fl. 1300) wrote in Persian the astrological book Ashjdr wa athmar (Trees and Fruits) which exists in many copies and an edition lithographed in Lucknow. (Suter, p. 161; Storey, vol. 2, pp. 61, 62).

Aratus (Ardtas) the Sage, No. 7, f. 214r, c. 275 B. C. (Ullmn., p. 277).

(Pseudo-) Aristotle, No. 2,is referred to nine times, once, f. 186v, in connection with a particular work, al-Makhzun al-asrar (The Hoarded Secrets, Ullmn., pp. 287, 291, 365, etc.).

K. Ashjar wa athmar, f. 199v, see `Alishah.

`Aydusi (?), No. 19, f. 216r. We find no mention of this individual elsewhere.

Balkhi, Abu al-Qasim, No. 22, f. 210r, wrote the Kitdb al-Tasyirat, which we find nowhere mentioned in the literature. GAS, vol. I, p. 622; vol. 5, p. 41, names a certain `Abdallah b. Ahmad b. Mahmud al-Ka'b7, Abu al-Qasim al-Balkhi who has the right name, but who died in 931 A. D. Our Balkhi discusses the death of Sultan Mahmud of Ghazna, which occurred in 1030.

Barahi (?), an Indian book, No. 17, f. 192r.

Bayhaqi, (Zahir al-Din) Abu al-Hasan (`Ali b. abu al-Qasim), No. 23, d. 1170, ff..94v, 186r, in addition to seventy-two other books wrote an astrological treatise in Persian, Jawdmi` ahkdm al-nujum, extant in many copies (Storey, vol. 2, p. 48; Ullmn.,p. 340).

Birjandi (or Barjandi), `Abd al-`Ali (b. Muhammad b. Husayn), No. 33, d.c. 1528, is referred to by our author nine times. He names two books by Birjandi, one Kitab `ajd'ib al-buldan (there is a second version with the title Risalah dar ab'ad u ajrdm u `ajd'ib-i bilad) on cosmology and geography which is well known, the other unknown to the European literature, Risalah falahat (A Treatise on Agriculture). (GAL, SII, p. 591; Storey, vol. 2, pp. 80-82.)

Biruni, Abu Rayhan, No. 9, is cited four times (Ullmn., p. 335).

Bistiham (?) the Indian, No. 25,ff. 197v, 200r, is a name otherwise unknown to us. The author reports his views on the motion of tailed stars.

Brahma and the Indian astrologers, ff. 184r, 192v.

Buzurgmihr (Budharjmihr) b. Bakhtagan, No. 6, the legendary prime minister of the Sasanian Khusru Anushirwan, is mentioned ten times, all in connection with the portents depending upon the entry of a particular planet into a particular sign (Ullmn., p. 297).

Centiloquium (Gr. Karpos, Ar. K. al- Thamra, Pers. Sad fasl-i iskan¬dari and Sad kalama-i Batlamyus), f. 199r, a pseudo-Ptolemaic collection of a hundred astrological aphorisms (Ullmn., p. 342).

Democritus (Dhamuqratas) the Atomist, No. 5, is mentioned five times (DSB, vol. 4, p. 30).

(Ibn) Farrukhan (al-)Tabari, (`Umar), f. 206r, (fl. 800) an astronomer and astrologer of Iranian background (Ullmn., p. 306).

Ghaznawi, Abu al-Mahamid (Muhammad b. Mas`ud b. al-Zaki, Zahir al-Din, fl. 1170), No. 18, wrote in Persian an astrological book called Kifayat al-ta`lam (ft sina'at al-tanjim), extant in many copies, to which there are nine references in the Tanbihat. (Ullmn., p. 339; Storey, vol. 2, pp. 46, 47.)

Abu al-Hasan `Ali b. Ahmad Harras (? or Jarras) Hamadani, No. 15, ff. 154r, 216r, we find mentioned nowhere else in the literature.

Hasib-i Makki, Ibrahim, No. 24 is perhaps the Ibrahim al-Hasib al-Maliki al-Mansuri al-Nasiri listed in GAL, SII, p. 157, as having written on astrology in Cairo in 1358. But in our text his name con-
sistently appears as Makki. He is invoked eighteen times, on subjects including the astrological implications of planetary retrograde motions and appearances as morning or evening stars.

Hermes Trismegistos, No. 1, the mythical figure who was by some regarded as the founder of astrology, is our author's prime source. The sixty references to him in the Tanbihdt make up almost three times the number of appeals to any other single authority. To him, f. 151r, is attributed the (Persian) Hashtad u panj bib (Ar. al-Khamsa wa al-thamanan bdb, Eighty-five Chapters). (Ullmn., pp. 165, 289, 292, etc.)

Ikhwan al-safa' (the Brethren of Purity), No. 27, ff. 185r, 216r, (Ullmn., pp. 24, 77, etc.).

Ikhtiyar, Ahmad al-mulaqqab bi-L, No. 35, f. 216v, perhaps the same as the individual named in Storey, vol. 2, p. 77, Ikhtiyar al-Din Muhammad, fl. 1480 (?), author of astrological books.

Isfizari (or Asfizari), Abu Muzaffar, f. 195v, in 1075 was com¬mssioned by the Saljuq Malikshah to reform the calendar (CAL, vol. 1, p. 620).

Jamasp the Sage, f. 153v, was a mythical figure, like Hermes Tris¬megistos, but of Iranian provenance (Ullmn., pp. 183, 295).

Jawami` al-ahkam, f. 94v, see Bayhaqi.

Kamal al-Din al-Farisi (fl. 1300), f. 195v, where the reference is to the Tanqih al-mandir, a commentary to Ibn al-Haytham's optics (GAL, SII, p. 295).

Khayyam, the Sage `Umar, f. 182v, the mathematician and poet, fl. 1100 (GAL, vol. 1, p. 620).

Khazin, Abu Ja`far, No. 11, f. 64v, fl. 950 (DSB, vol. 7, p. 334). Khwarizmi (Muhammad b. Musa), f. 207v, fl. 830, (DSB, vol. 7, p. 358).

Kifayat al-ta`lim, No. 18, see Ghaznawi.

(Al-)Kindi, Ya`qub b. Ishaq, No. 16, the "Philosopher of the Arabs", fl. 850, is mentioned eight times (Ullmn., p. 313).

Kushyar b. Labban al-Jili, abu al-Hasan, No. 14, fl. 1010, is referred to five times (Ullmn., p. 334).

Lahiji, Sayyid Muhammad, No. 34, ff. 146r, 216r, is otherwise un¬known, unless he is identical with Qutb al-Din Muhammad b. Shaykh `Ali Sharif-i Lahiji, fl. 1600, cited by Storey, vol. 2, p. 92. Our man wrote a book called Lata'if al-kaldam.

K. al-Makhzun al-asrar, see Aristotle.

Ma la budda minhu (That of Which There Is No Doubt), No. 30, is the curious title of a book, the author not named, thrice, mentioned, ff. 154, 195v, 216r.

K. Malhama, see Tabisi.

Masha'allah, No. 12, is the well-known Jewish astrologer (Ullmn. pp. 303 ff.), fl. 800. What is of interest here is that in his list of authorities, f. 216r, our author says "Yazdankhwast, known as Masha'allah, the Egyptian", implying that the astrologer was of Iranian origin. The Arabic form of the name, "That which God wished", is a translation of the Persian.

Abu Ma`shar-i Balkhi, No. 10, fl. 850, perhaps the most famous of all astrologers, is referred to only ten times in the Tanbihat, which names two of his books, (al-)Mudkhal (al-kabar) and the Mukhtasar al-asrdr (GAL, SI, p. 395; Ullmn., pp. 316ff.).

Muhyi al-Din al-Maghribi, No 28, fl. 1250, a well-known astronomer and astrologer, is mentioned thirteen times in our text (Ullmn., p. 342).

Nakhjawani, see Taj al-Din.

Naqqash, Abu Muslim, No. 20, f. 216r, is otherwise completely unknown to us.

Nasir al-Din al-Tusi, No. 8, fl. 1250, was a favorite authority for our author, being mentioned twenty-two times. Among these, al-Tusi's commentary upon the Centiloquium (which see) is referred to twice, ff. 200r, 205r, (Ullmn., 127, 341).

Ptolemy, No. 3, fl. 150, receives mention thirteen times, of which four name his astrological handbook, the Tetrabiblos, and two the Cen¬tiloquium, which see (Ullmn., pp. 282, 342).

Qadizadah-i Rumi, f. 198r, the astronomer, fl. 1410 (DSB, vol. 11, p. 227).

Qutb al-Din-i Shirazi, ff. 126v, 197r, another astronomer, fl. 1280 (DSB, vol. 11, p. 247).

Rawdat al-munajjimirr, see Shahmardan.

Ibn Ridwan, `Ali (abu al-Hasan) the Egyptian, No. 21, ff. 95r, 209v, fl. 1050, wrote a commentary on the Tetrabiblos (see Ptolemy), extant in many copies, which was translated into Latin (Ullmn., p. 337; GAL, SI, p. 886).

Ibn abi al-Rijal (Abenragel), No. 26, f. 216r, d. 1041 (Ullmn., pp. 335-7).

Samarqandi, see `Abd al-Razzaq.

Shahmardan-i Razi, (ibn abi al-Khayr). No. 31, f. 216r, in 1072 wrote in Persian the Rawdat al-munajjimin, an extensive introduction to astrology (Storey, vol. 2, p. 45; Ullmn., p. 337).

Al-Sijzi, `Abd al-Jalil, No. 13, fl. 1000, is invoked twelve times in the text, on astrological subjects ranging over a wide span (Ullmn., pp. 333-4).

Tabari, `Ali b. Zayd, ff. 210v, 215, is otherwise completely unknown to us.

Tabisi (?), Abu al-Fadl Husayn b. Ibrahim, f. 196r, author of the book Malhama. The reading of the first letter of this name is equivocal, and we find no clue in the literature. As for the book, there are several having the word malhama (struggle, or prophecy) in the title, e.g. Ullmn., pp. 284, 288, 293, but none seem to be this one.

Taj al-Din Akram Nakhjawani, No. 29, fl. 1260, referred to twen¬ty-two times, is the second most widely used source for the Tanbihat. Yet we find him nowhere named in the European literature.
K. al-Tasyardt, see Balkhi.

Tetrabiblos, see Ptolemy and Ibn Ridwan.

K. Tukaristan, cf. the comet reported from f. 209v, Section 3 above. We find no other mention of the book, and none of its author.

Walis Iskandarani (Vettius Valens), f. 154r, fl. 160 A.D., the Greek astrologer whose opinions entered Muslim writings via Middle Persian translations (Ullmn., p. 281).

Yazdi, Sharaf al-Din `Ali, f. 183r, fl. 1430, was a historian of the Timurid dynasty (Storey, vol. 1, pp. 283f.).

Zoroaster, No. 4, ff. 151r, 216r (Ullmn., pp. 294f.).

5. Table of Contents of the Tanbihat

The work commences with the customary praise of God and the Prophet;
the author names himself ........................................... 1v
Dedication to Shah `Abbas .......................................... 2r

INTRODUCTION. On the Conditions of ThisVariety of
(Astrological) Judgments ........................................... 2r

CHAPTER l. On the Judgments of Planetary Conjunctions.
Part 1. On Conjunctions of (Other) Planets with Saturn ............. 4r
The presentation commences with Jupiter-Saturn conjunctions, indications
being listed depending on the sign in which the conjunction occurs.
The same is done for conjunctions in each of the four triplicities... 5r Part 2. On Conjunctions with Jupiter ................................ 20v
Part 3. On Conjunctions of the Inferior Planets with Mars ........... 31v
Part 4. On Conjunctions of the Inferior Planets ..................... 39v
Part 5. On Moon-Mercury Conjunctions in the Triplicities ............ 44v
Part 6. On Multiple Conjunctions .................................... 47r
CHAPTER 2. On the JudgmentsBased on Aspects.
Parts 1 and 2 involve the aspects other than conjunction
and opposition .............................................. 49r Part 3. On the Judgments Based on Combusts (Ihtiraqat) .............. 64v Part 4. On the Judgments Based on Conjunctions and Oppositions.................................................. 94v
Part 5. On Judgments Based on the Lunar Phases (? the text
has qashashat, for fasistat, Gr. c)aoy, see Tafham, p. 153 ... 116r Part 6. On Judgments Based on the Conjoining (Mujasidat) of
the Planets with the Lunar Nodes ............................. 122r
CHAPTER 3. On the Judgments from the Entry of the Planets
into the Twelve Signs.
Part 1. On the Judgments of the Transfer of Saturn from Sign to
Sign ........................................................ 127v Part 2. On the Judgments of the Transfer of Jupiter from Sign to
Sign ........................................................ 131r Part 3. The same for Mars ........................................... 136v Part 4. The same for the sun ........................................ 140v
Part 5. The same for Venus .......................................... 143v
Part 6. The same for Mercury ........................................ 144r
Part 7. The same for the moon ....................................... 146r
Part 8. The same for the ascending lunar node ....................... 147r
Part 9. The same for the descending node ............................ 148r
CHAPTER 4. On Judgments(Inferred from) Planetary Retrogradations,
Forward Motions, and First and Last Visibility in the East and West.
Part I. On Judgments from Planetary Retrogradations ................. 150v
Part 2. On Judgments from First and Last Visibility ................. 158r Part 3. On Judgments from Eastern and Western Apparitions
of the Planets .............................................. 172v
CHAPTER 5. On the Judgments Based on Planetary Exaltation (Sharaf), Descent (Hubut), Detriment (Wibal), Apogee, and Perigee.
Part 1. On the Judgments of Exaltation and Descent .................. 181r
Part 2. On the Judgments of Detriment ............................... 184r Part 3. On the Judgments of the Apogee and Perigee
of the Planets .............................................. 184v
CHAPTER 6. On Judgments Based on Various Things.
Part 1. On the Judgments of the Lot of Events
(sahm al-hawadith) ......................................... 186r Part 2. On Judgments Based on Sirius ............................... 188r
(The section includes material about people whose names begin
with such-and-such a letter.)
Part 3. On the Judgments of Celestial Effects Caused by Moist
Steam ...................................................... 192v Objective (maqsad) l. On the Judgments of Colors of Clouds
and Fog Because of the Rays of the Two Luminaries ........... 193r Objective 2. On the Judgments Based on Lunar Haloes ......... 194r Objective 3. On the Judgments Based on Farrukh's Arch
(the rainbow) Which Is also Known As Rustam's Bow ........... 195r Part 4, On the Judgments of Celestial Effects Caused by Smoke.
Objective 1. On the Indication Inferred by the People of This
Art from the Appearance of Planets .......................... 196r Objective 2. On the Cause of the Occurrence of This Sign .... 196v Objective 3. On the Knowledge of the Varieties of Tailed Stars........................................................ 197v (This material is discussed in Section 2 above).
Objective 4. On the Effects of Comets ....................... 199r
Objective 5. Recital of Events (tajarib) .................... 207r (Various of these are reported in Section 3 above)

CONCLUSION. Being the Mention of Authors, Ancient and Modern, Whose
Sayings Made Possible the Writing of This Book ....................... 216r (The numbered list comprising thirty-five names has been in¬corporated into Section 4 above).
Colophon ............................................................. 216v
Allen: Richard H. Allen, Star Names and Their Meanings, 2`' repr., New York 1899.
Comets: E. S. Kennedy, "Comets in Islamic Astronomy and Astrology", Journal of Near Eastern Studies, 16 (1957), 44-51.
DSB: Dictionary of Scientific Biography, New York 1970-1978, 15 vols.
GAL: Carl Brockelmann, Geschichte der arabischen Literatur, Leiden 1937-1949, 3 vols. plus 3
suppl. Vols.
GAS: Fuat Sezgin, Geschichte des arabischen Schrifttums, Leiden 1967-1974, 5 vols.
Goldst.: Bernhard R. Goldstein, "Evidence for a Supernova of A.D. 1006", Astronomical Journal, 70 (1965), 106-114.