Location: North Africa, bordering the Mediterranean Sea, between Egypt and Tunisia
Capital: Tripoli
Area: 1,759,540 sq km
Coastline: 1,770 km
Elevation extremes:
lowest point: Sabkhat Ghuzayyil -47 m
highest point: Bikku Bitti 2,267 m
Official language: Arabic
Population: 5,115,450
Age structure: 0-14 years: 36%
15-64 years: 60%
65 years and over: 4%
Currency: Libyan Dinar
Member: Arab League, OPEC

Libya is located in North Africa, bordered on the north by the Mediterranean Sea, by Sudan and Egypt on the east, Tunis and Algeria on the west, Niger and Chad on the south. It has an area of 1,759,540 sq km and a population of about 4.5million. Its capital is Tripoli; major cities are Benghazi, Tobruk, Darna and Ghadames.

The Sahara makes up most of the area of the country mostly flat barren plains. The coastal plain has many oases. Its mountains are al-Jebal al-Akhdar (green mountain)on the Mediterranean to the north east, Tibisti in the south. Its highest peak is Bikku Bitti at 2286m. Libya has a desert climate with very little rain, and Mediterranean weather along the coast.

Agriculture is twofold: nomadic and cultivated. Livestock (cattle, sheep, goats, camels) are raised in extremely barren areas in the nomadic tradition. In the cultivated farms the crops are tomatoes and wheat, olives, potatoes, dates, barley, citrus, almonds and grapes.

Oil is the main natural resource; oil fields are located in the center of the country. Industry is refining and petrochemical production. Iron is produced in Misrata. Other industries are textiles and carpets, tobacco, chemicals, building materials.
Notable is Libya’s production of good quality television sets.

The government is undertaking a major project to construct a man made river, which hopes to turn north Libya into a fertile region, irrigating an area of 180,000hectares. This project depends on pumping desert groundwater (from a depth of 800m) and piping it 1500km to Benghazi and Tripoli in the north. This project’s estimated cost is 25bilion dollars. The pipes used are diameter. In 1991, the completed phase provided no more than 20% of the expected water supply.

Libya was under Italian control from 1912 till independence in 1951. It was a kingdom under King Idriss Sanussi who ruled from 1950 till September 1969 when a revolution ended the monarchy.


Cities: Tripoli, Ghadames, Misrata, Benghazi


Nature reserves:


Libya’s Constitution,  Universities