Founded in 1781 by Ahmed al Tijani, an Algerian Berber, the tijaniya tariqa is a Sufi order. Though it originated in North Africa, Tijaniya has spread to many areas of West Africa at the expense of the Qadiriya, possibly because is teachings are simpler and better suited for modern life.

Tijaniya precepts include injunctions against lying, stealing, cheating, and killing. These precepts insist that promises and obligations be honored, neighbors be loved, and superiors be obeyed. Members are to deprive no one of his freedom without cause and are to reflect continually on God in prayer. Although Tijaniya recognizes that everyone sins, it suggests that loyal members of the brotherhood will be rewarded in an afterlife.

To become a member of the order, one must receive the Tijānī wird, or a sequence of holy phrases to be repeated twice daily, from a muqaddam, or representative of the order.

The Tijaniya has two branches in
Mauritania, the Hadefiste (or Hafediste) and the Omariya. Little is known about the Hadefiste. The Omariya branch was founded by a Toucouleur, El Hadj Omar, in the late 19th C. The membership of the Omariya is largely Toucouleur, but many Soninké, Fulbe, and Wolof also belong to this order.

References: Library of Congress Country Studies http://lcweb2.loc.gov/frd/cs/mrtoc.html

Wikipedia http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Tijaniya